Python Crash Course 2nd Revision: Stage-10

python Rev2 Working with files and data

Python Files and Data

Files and data are the lifeblood of many software applications, and Python provides powerful tools to work with them. In this part of our Python crash course, we’ll explore how to handle files, read and write data, and perform various data manipulation tasks using Python.

Opening and Closing Files

Python allows you to open and work with files using the built-in open() function.

The open() function takes two parameters: filename, and mode. There are four different methods (modes) for opening a file:

  • "r" – Opens a file for reading
  • "a" – Appends file and creates the file if it does not exist
  • "w" – Opens a file for writing and creates the file if it does not exist
  • "x" – Creates the specified file

Specify the file mode (e.g., read, write, append), and let Python take care of the rest. Here’s an example:

# Open a file for reading
file = open("example.txt", "r")

# Read the contents
contents =

# Close the file

In this code, we open a file named “example.txt” in read mode, read its contents, and then close the file.

Reading and Writing Data

Python provides various methods for reading and writing data, whether it’s text, binary, or structured data. You can read line by line, iterate through files, and write data in different formats. Here’s an example of reading data line by line:

with open("data.txt", "r") as file:
    for line in file:

In this code, we use a with statement to open a file in read mode and read its contents line by line.

Data Manipulation

Python’s rich ecosystem of libraries like NumPy and pandas make data manipulation a breeze. You can perform tasks like data cleaning, filtering, aggregation, and more. Here’s a simple example of using pandas to load and display a CSV file:

import pandas as pd

data = pd.read_csv("data.csv")

This code imports pandas, loads a CSV file, and displays the data in a tabular format.

Error Handling

When working with files and data, it’s crucial to handle errors gracefully. Python’s error handling mechanisms, like try, except, and finally, help ensure your code remains robust and error tolerant. Here’s an example:

    # Attempt to open a file that doesn't exist
    with open("nonexistent_file.txt", "r") as file:
        content =
    print("File opened and read successfully.")
except FileNotFoundError:
    print("The file does not exist.")
    print("The file handling process is complete.")

In this example, we attempt to open a file that doesn’t exist. If the file is not found, a FileNotFoundError exception is raised, and the code within the except block is executed, which in this case prints a message indicating that the file does not exist. The finally clause is always executed after either the try or except has been handled.

Error handling is crucial when working with files and data, as it allows your program to gracefully handle unexpected situations and continue to function even when issues occur.

Data Storage and Retrieval

Python offers various methods to store and retrieve data, whether in files, databases, or remote services. You can use libraries like SQLite, SQLAlchemy, or APIs to interact with data sources.


By mastering Python’s file handling and data manipulation capabilities, you’ll be well-equipped to work with data in various forms, from simple text files to complex databases. These skills are essential for a wide range of applications, including data analysis, automation, and content management.

In our final Python crash course installment, we’ll explore the turtle module and have some fun. Stay tuned for more Python programming knowledge!

That’s All Folks!

You can explore more of our Python guides here: Python Guides

Luke Barber

Hello, fellow tech enthusiasts! I'm Luke, a passionate learner and explorer in the vast realms of technology. Welcome to my digital space where I share the insights and adventures gained from my journey into the fascinating worlds of Arduino, Python, Linux, Ethical Hacking, and beyond. Armed with qualifications including CompTIA A+, Sec+, Cisco CCNA, Unix/Linux and Bash Shell Scripting, JavaScript Application Programming, Python Programming and Ethical Hacking, I thrive in the ever-evolving landscape of coding, computers, and networks. As a tech enthusiast, I'm on a mission to simplify the complexities of technology through my blogs, offering a glimpse into the marvels of Arduino, Python, Linux, and Ethical Hacking techniques. Whether you're a fellow coder or a curious mind, I invite you to join me on this journey of continuous learning and discovery.

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